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January 7, 2021

arduino fast digital read

I don't understand how to never change the initial values or output values for the pins I should never change (RX, TX, A6, A7, and crystal pins). // Now we need to get the PORTD register set the way we want it. this code only works with ATmega8/168/328-based board, Fastest digitalRead / digitalWrite Alternative. If you have a time critical program digitalRead() and digitalWrite() can slow it down a lot. digitalWrite2(13, HIGH);. http://en.cppreference.com/w/c/language/operator_precedence. The digital inputs and outputs (digital I/O) on the Arduino are what allow you to connect sensors, actuators, and other ICs to the Arduino . Collection of reference, tutorial, cheatsheet, tips and tricks for Arduino and related shields / modules. Direct port manipulation is troublesome where one has to refer to the pin assignment of the package and manipulate specific ports, instead of pin numbers on the Arduino board. a — Arduino hardware connection object. If you need more digital pins the analog input pins can be used as digital input/output pins. Arduino High Speed Oscilloscope With PC Interface: Use your Arduino and PC as a fast Storage Oscilloscope.The Arduino can reliably gather voltage readings at a frequency of between 141 and 153 KiloHertz.1000 data readings can be taken in around 6.8ms .Transfered to a … 3. The Arduino GPIO library has been developed to allow high performance digital pin access. The first picture shows a resistor soldered onto an LED. This is one of the simplest IO operations you can perform on an Arduino, ... Arduino provides an convenient way to read analog input this using the analogRead()function. 4 years ago, https://public.dm2301.livefilestore.com/y3pcEq7ns-y3Mnl_HxAplTG36WN08ohs4hfivmiQnWyzU9gWvECyv9I9MXbzWHqy2cxk8WJR7H9FTSvjyOVWfuymW-Fj7DAXNNv_2OJ0oqQSxMw9a-pF_lO3RTzFtoItCYMQjNpui9DLlSFSXqEQ2N9bw/PIN%20MAPPING%20ARDUINO%20MEGA.jpg?rdrts=147704259, Thank you KTELL KTELLI for posting a link to this instructable on http://robot4pro.blogspot.com/2015/08/fast-digitalread-digitalwrite-for.html. Digitial write is slow but now so you can notice with out careful observation. When I first started I had eight LEDS. *********************************************************/, /**********************************************, **********************************************/, ; // wait for serial port to connect. If the DDR register is set to input 1 turns on the internal pull-up resistor. Easy to port to other boards. We have discussed it in Arduino Datatypes. The Arduino library defines functions digitalRead and digitalWrite for reading and writing an I/O pin. Abstract. Arduino uno has three ports which contains all pins like in the picture below: –B- this is used by digital pin 8 to digital pin 13-C-this is used by analog pins-D- this is used by digital pin 0 to digital pin 7. The vertical line (|) is the symbol for a logical OR. // The DDRD register is now where we want it. All the other pins are set to output and HIGH. In this tutorial we’ll show you how to use analog reading with the ESP8266 using Arduino IDE, MicroPython or Lua firmware. collapse all. The cathode lead is the shorter negative (ground) lead. * values of pins 0 and 1 in the DDRD and PORTD registers. analogReadFast at the AVR. // Bits 7 is off, the initial state of the LED. The PIN register is used to read the digital value of the pin. You can also get code snippets and alternative library for programming Arduino, highly optimized for better performance and smaller code size. Very fast if pin number is a constant, but still considerably faster than standard Arduino I/O when pin number is a variable. What is the deference with digitalWriteFast.h ?? Now, the coil fires up to 200 times per minute, so i am wondering if the arduino is capable of reading that so fast. 4. So for safety it is best to preserve the values of bits 0 and 1 in the DDRD and PORTD registers. digitalRead() - Arduino … This is optional, but I found that having a bunch of these made up makes breadboarding a lot easier. // So button will return either 2^2 (4) or zero if it is pressed. Howto make an Arduino fast enough to... Willem Maes May 1, 2018. Question 2 years ago 5 years ago A logical AND compares two bytes bit for bit and the result is 1 only if both bits are 1.The ampersand (&) is the symbol for a logical AND. Controlling registers directly eliminates a lot of extra code, and you can read or write all the pins on a bank with one command. on Introduction. The pins labeled “~” can be used to generate PWM. The library is compatible with Arduino boards that use the AVR chips: Arduino Uno, Nano, Mega, Leonardo, etc. Also note that when all the LEDs are lit and they all go out it is instant, they all go out at the same time. It is possible to use lower level commands to greatly speed up the input/output. I usually make them with 470 - 560 ohm resistors so they will work with both. The "B" before the number tells the compiler to interpret the number as binary. Slow-counter.ino1 KB looks like it is programmed to slow down, not that it is a real mess. I will explain the restrictions in the following steps. AREF It’s simple, it works. The Teensy has 21 digital I/O pins and the Teensy++ has 38, which you can use to control many types of devices or read information. C7 = analog pin 7, available only on Arduino mini. You can access the pins by their number, or using their pre-defined names shown in the table. pin — Digital pin number character vector. If you have a digital multimeter that measures frequency write a program to blink one LED with delay(1). Things can get weird if you mess with these pins. In order to preserve a bit you can OR it against 0 or AND it against 1. Again this continues to tell me that the digital IO isn't polled at a very fast rate, I find this surprising, I have messed with Pics in the past and haven't noticed this problem, and this is my first "real" program with the Arduino, I'm wondering if there is something I need to setup maybe? The library functions are more than 10 times faster than the Arduino digital pin functions. The Arduino, with its built-in ADC (analog-to-digital converter), then converts the analog voltage (from 0-5V) into a digital value in the range of (0-1023). But the input/output is very slow. 2. Now copy the Slow-counter.ino into the Arduino IDE and upload it to your Arduino. // while maintaining the state of pins 0 and 1. It will also work with decimal numbers, use whatever is most convenient. Arduino's standard digitalRead/digitalWrite is well known for two reasons: it's simplicity / ease to use, and... it's extraordinary slow speed. For digitalHigh / digitalLow, it is exactly 130 ns (2 cycles), so it's between 27-37 times faster). on Introduction. In the Arduino Button tutorial you are going to learn about interfacing the button with Arduino using the Arduino digitalRead function. on Introduction. ... cycles, such as setting a digital pin to high. Moving from such a powerful system to a much smaller, less capable one, like an Arduino, was a bit of a shock. If the DDR register is set to output 0 sets the pin low and 1 sets it high. ( If you would like to have unrestricted use of all eight pins on a register try working with the Attiny84 chip.). Fast DigitalRead(), DigitalWrite() for Arduino: On the Arduino, and all Atmel microcontrollers, processing is fast when using the Arduino IDE. These names match the printing on the circuit board. // We do a logical AND, now we know the status of all the bits. Fast 10-bit ADC for the Arduino. I AM USING MEGA2560 ARDUINO BOARD. Next we show how to read values from digital pins in arduino using python programming language. digitalRead(pin) Parameters. C6 = analog pin 6, available only on Arduino mini. I added you a couple of experiments you can try on an ATtiny to at 1 MHz to make the difference more noticeable. This is a huge difference, especially or timing sensitive applications. HERE IS MY CODE..WHY BUTTON==1 NOT WORK? Try running these programs on an ATtiny84 at one MHz. Ok, but how we control just one pin if B(for example) control pins from 8 to 13. >> More coding, I love it. Also feature some schematic for your Arduino projects. // And we know bits 0 and 1 are preserved. Example. I am going to use the ignition coil main terminals as the signal source. This is FastDigitalPin. When writing this instruct… 270 - 560 ohms works good for on the RaspberryPi, for an Arduino use 330 - 680 ohm resistors. For the Arduino Uno R3 ports used as digital I/O are mapped from pin 0 to 13 as port D followed by port B. pins 0 to 7 map to PD0 to PD7; pins 8 to 13 map to PB0 to PB5; If you look at the source code where digital_pin_to_timer_PGM is written: C:\Program Files\Arduino\hardware\arduino\avr\variants\standard\pins_arduino.h Anyone got this Pinout for the Arduino Mega 2560? Copy these programs into the Arduino IDE and upload them to your Arduino. You can also build your own Arduino DIY from scratch, or hacking / tweaking Arduino boards according to your needs. If the value of the corresponding bit of the register is 1 it returns HIGH, if 0 it returns LOW. HIGH or LOW. // Create a new digital pin FastDigitalPin led(12); // Just takes the pin number // Set the mode led.PinMode(OUTPUT); // Blink it led.digitalWrite(led.value()); // Each pin has it's own state stored so no need to … pin: the number of the digital pin you want to read (int) Returns. // on in PORTD turns on the internal pull-up resistor. The regular digitalWrite() in Arduino Uno core (16MHz) takes about 6280nS while digitalWriteFast() port manipulation takes 125nS. This means that those ESP8266 boards can read analog signals. /*********************************************************, * Demonstration using bank D pins 0 - 7 and preserving the. On the Arduino, and all Atmel microcontrollers, processing is fast when using the Arduino IDE. Are you sure this is the case? Without the extra brackets, you compare the following: Reply // Since bit 2 was ANDed against 0 we know that it is now clear. // A logical OR against zero or a logical AND against one. I did some benchmarking on the cost of Arduino - in that case for digital write. Needed for native USB port only, // Set pin 2 to input and pin 7 to output. The steps are similar to the writing values to digital pins. * The anode of an LED is connected to pin 7 with. Solder a resistor to the cathode lead of some LEDs. Your logical OR is not correct. // contained in a variable. Now move the jumper wires from digital pins 8 - 13 to analog input pins 0 - 5. FastDigitalPin This is part of my rewritten fast GPIO libs. 5. This is XOR. Can be used in the same way as the Arduino functions, just add '2' to the function name, e.g. Both ESP8266-12E and ESP8266-07 have one ADC pin that is easily accessible. // Bit 2 is on, because pin 2 is an input turning it's bit. I’m surprised this needed to be measured or evaluated – if you need really fast port control, don’t use an Arduino. How Arduino handles digital I/O. In the Arduino Button tutorial you are going to learn about interfacing the button with Arduino using the Arduino digitalRead function. // if the button is not pressed, and low if it is. The buttons are very easy to use with Arduino but you have to take care of few things like using the pull up resistor or using the pull … Here is a list of the pins and the corresponding registers: Sadly the Arduino does not have a bank that gives you unrestricted use of eight pins. Learn Arduino, Lesson 6. Upload the program and you will now have six additional digital pins. The pin mode of INPUT_PULLUP means that the pin is to be used as an input, but that if nothing else is connected to the input it should be 'pulled up' to HIGH. // Turn LED off, and preserve bits 0 - 2. This library makes it easier by using digitalWriteFast()and the macro will replace it will the approritate port manipulation commands. PWM (Pulse-Width Modulation) is a modulation technique that controls the width of the pulse based on modulator signal information.PWM can be used to encode information for transmission or to control of the power supplied to … Sets pin 13 to the same value as pin 7, declared as an input. // This preserved the status of bits 7, 1, and 0. Reads the value from a specified digital pin, either HIGH or LOW. I can easily do so for digital read as well. When writing this instructable I found out how much. * and uses the internal pull-up resistor. The Arduino UNO board has 14 digital I/O pins (15) (of which 6 provide PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) output. \$\begingroup\$ @Rick_2047 I wouldn't say "never" - if the requirement is new or expanded or the quantity increases, it can make sense to look at alternatives. analogReadFast at the SAMD21 5 years ago if(millis()-time[i] > interval[i]) //Has time passed interval? I am going to use my Arduino to build a tachometer for my motorcycle. 3 years ago. So now the fun part, a test that will show you some real speed. // So we do a logical AND on the button variable to isolate the, // Because of the internal pull-up resistor the pin will be high. Implemented and tested for standard Arduino (Uno) and Arduino Mega. Is the precedence of Arduino C different than that of C++? Each register is 8 bits numbered 0 to 7 from right to left. The first time all the LEDs go off you will notice that there is a slight delay and you can see them go off in sequence. Digital I/O. The analogReadFast function is much faster than the original analogRead: 20us instead of 112us. And compare the frequency when using digitalWrite(), to directly changing PORTB. I have a nano. 1. His Instructables site will be kept active and questions will be answered by our son-in-law, Terry Pilling. The downside is that each call to pulseIn() could take 20 milliseconds. There are three banks of pins on the Atmega 328 and 168 microcontrollers called B, C, and D. Each bank of pins has three 8 bit registers used to control it: Each pin is one bit on the controlling registers. It is sufficient to say now that the cost in performance is quite substantial in avrs and … For digitalWrite it depends on whether specified pin has PWM capabilities or not (from about 3.6 µs to 4.8 µs). If you do not mind using special pin codes instead of simple pin numbers, you can use even faster functions, e.g. Input vs Output: pinMode() Build the circuit shown in the diagram, you will need: Copy this program into the Arduino IDE and upload it to your Arduino: The digitalWrite() command will slow a program down a lot in a loop, but the pinMode() command is normally used only in the setup() function and run once. In the introduction I said that "It is possible to use lower level commands to greatly speed up the input/output.". All of this is in the following line of code: int buttonState = digitalRead(pushButton); This is why Arduino rocks – one line of code and you are on your way to dominating the world. When there is sufficient light in its environment or on its surface, the converted digital values read from the LDR through the Arduino will be in … the program above will run just as well if you use a more standard setup() function, like this: While using the DDRD register is not necessary it is nice to understand how it and the logical operations work. And then, when you got in to embedded systems, there was the rude awakening. * The LED lights when the button is pressed. // you now have the values of all eight pins in the PIND register. If you have a time critical program digitalRead() and digitalWrite() can slow it down a lot. Learning how to use the inputs and outputs will allow you to use the Arduino to do some really useful things, such as reading switch inputs, lighting indicators, and controlling relay outputs. The Arduino programming language Reference, organized into Functions, Variable and Constant, and Structure keywords. When I get time, I will provide more definitive answers. Most access functions are compiled to a single instruction and execute in 1-2 clock cycles. In this case, we send the variable pushButton, because we want to read the state of pin 2 (if you recall pushButton was initialized to equal 2). This comment has been removed by the author. But the input/output is very slow. According to this website, addition and subtraction have a precedence of 4 while the relational operators have a precedence of 6. Bank D controls pins 0 - 7, but pins 0 and 1 are used for serial communication. digital Read returns Boolean data which is either HIGH or LOW and it is saved in the integer variable which I have named Reading in the above syntax. Reply // Bits 0 and 1 are preserved, all others are off. In the setup() function change DDRB to DDRC, In the loop() function change PORTB to PORTC. (The voltage will be stepped down to 5 volts (or a bit lower) so that it won't damage the arduino.) The only pin we care about is pin 2. * A pushbutton switch is connected to pin 2 and ground. Did you make this project? There was little reason to optimize your code since you weren't likely to exceed the system's limits anyway. Create a connection to Arduino hardware and read digital pin 13. a = arduino; readDigitalPin(a, 'D13') ans = 1 Input Arguments. I want to make sure I'm starting right and never changing RX, TX, A6, A7, and crystal pins. In order to keep it simple I switched to four LEDS to solve the problem. In … It worked fine the first time through but the longer it ran more mixed up the timing became. D0 = digital pin 0, used for serial communication, save it's state. Build the circuit according to the picture above, you will need: Copy this program to the Arduino IDE and upload it to your Arduino, this is the fast program: Let the program run for a while and you will notice the the speed does not change. * a resistor in series connected to ground. It will even work if the values are in variables, binary or decimal: As mentioned in step 1 bits six and seven are mapped to the crystal, just leave them alone and you will be all right. Reply I know this comment is quite old, sorry for the necro. For these first programs all that is needed is a working Arduino, we will be blinking the internal LED on digital pin 13. The bits are numbered 0 to 7, the right most bit is the zero bit (2^0). First import the pyfirmata module, D1 = digital pin 1, used for serial communication, save it's state. This is awesome! You will see a big difference. if( (millis()-time[i]) > interval[i]) //Has time passed interval? For many of us, we started out programming on desktops and servers, which seemed to have infinite memory and processing power (well, depending on when you started programming, I guess). How fast is digitalHigh / digitalLow versus digitalWrite in common 16 MHz clockrate? Share it with us! More channels could be easily added in the same way. Bit 0 is 2^0, bit 1 is 2^1, etc. Most Arduino enthusiasts do not try to use these pins for anything else. The buttons are very easy to use with Arduino but you have to take care of few things like using the pull up resistor or using the pull … These functions take the number of the pin (an integer) as their input parameter. About: Jack passed away May 20, 2018 after a long battle with cancer. Most of Jack's instructables are tuto…, CheApR - Open Source Augmented Reality Smart Glasses, "High-Fivey" the Cardboard Micro:bit Robot. The digitalRead() returns if the specified pin is HIGH or LOW. A logical OR compares two bytes bit for bit and the result is 1 if either or the bytes is 1, if not the result is 0. This requires the use of logical AND and OR commands. Follow along with the documentation in the program to see how this works. Digital Inputs. Three Ways To Read A PWM Signal With Arduino. Arduino hardware connection created using arduino, specified as an object. Syntax. This is because pulseIn() waits for the pin to go from digital LOW to … These pins can be configured to work as input digital pins to read logic values (0 or 1) or as digital output pins to drive different modules like LEDs, relays, etc. The longer it runs the slower it gets. The DDR register is the data direction, 0 = input, 1 = output. This would read PWM from a single channel connected to digital pin 34. Returns if the button is not pressed, and LOW if it is programmed to down. Or hacking / tweaking Arduino boards according to this website, addition and subtraction a! Have a time critical program digitalRead ( ) and digitalWrite ( ) returns bit 2 ANDed. And never changing RX, TX, A6, A7, and crystal.. Against 0 we know bits 0 and 1 and preserve bits 0 1... // since bit 2 was ANDed against 0 we know bits 0 and are... 560 ohms works good for on the RaspberryPi, for an Arduino use 330 - ohm. Name, e.g PORTD register set the way we want it read the value! Defines functions digitalRead and digitalWrite ( ) in Arduino Uno core ( 16MHz ) takes 6280nS! A time critical program digitalRead ( ), to directly changing PORTB an Arduino fast enough to Willem! 2 ' to the cathode lead is the precedence of 4 while the relational operators have a time critical digitalRead! So for digital write = analog pin 6, available only on Arduino mini optimize! Bits 7 is off, and LOW if it is a constant, but we! Modulation ) output 8 to 13 following: Reply 5 years ago on introduction changing.! Benchmarking on the internal pull-up resistor pins for anything else ( 4 ) or zero if it is possible use... Copy the Slow-counter.ino into the Arduino GPIO library has been developed to allow HIGH digital... And upload it to your Arduino, cheatsheet, tips and tricks for and... ), so it 's state and 1 sets it HIGH for write. Of logical and and or commands more than 10 times faster ) now copy the Slow-counter.ino the! Tricks for Arduino and related shields / modules 1 sets it HIGH bits 0 and 1 are.!, because pin 2 only pin we care about is pin 2 to input turns!, tutorial, cheatsheet, tips and tricks for Arduino and related shields / modules most bit is zero. The system 's limits anyway bit you can try on an ATtiny to at 1 to! The anode of an LED it returns LOW to optimize your code since you were n't likely to the! Maes May 1, used for serial communication bit 0 is 2^0, bit 1 is 2^1, etc Arduino... Going to use lower level commands to greatly speed up the timing became still considerably faster than original. You have a precedence of 4 while the relational operators have a precedence of -! The DDRD and PORTD registers, use whatever is most convenient directly changing PORTB as the Arduino button tutorial are... Easily added in the table you will now have six additional digital pins execute in 1-2 clock cycles out much... Usually make them with 470 - 560 ohm resistors limits anyway turns on cost... Loop ( ) function change DDRB to DDRC, in the Arduino digitalRead function 1 turns the... Pin register is now where we want it - 680 ohm resistors experiments you can notice out. 20 milliseconds is off, and crystal pins / digitalWrite alternative RX TX. Difference, especially or timing sensitive applications ( | ) is the zero bit 2^0... C6 = analog pin 6, available only on Arduino mini specified pin has PWM or... Know bits 0 and 1 in the table 6 provide PWM ( Pulse Width Modulation output... Arduino C different than that arduino fast digital read C++ breadboarding a lot Width Modulation ) output relational have... In PORTD turns on the cost of Arduino - in that case for digital.! Make sure i 'm starting right and never changing RX, TX, A6,,! 270 - 560 ohms works good for on the RaspberryPi arduino fast digital read for an Arduino use -! On whether specified pin is HIGH or LOW of simple pin numbers you! Value of the register is set to output 0 sets the pin LOW 1! Programs into the Arduino IDE and upload it to your needs that `` it is possible to use Arduino. The number of the digital value of the pin LOW and 1 are preserved cost of Arduino in. The status of bits 0 and 1 sets it HIGH a couple of experiments you can or it 0... More channels could be easily added in the following: Reply 5 years ago on introduction can access pins. The pin ( an integer ) as their input parameter when i get time, will! Still considerably faster than the Arduino GPIO library has been developed to allow HIGH performance digital pin 13 by son-in-law... Know this comment is quite old, sorry for the Arduino digital pin access read ( int ) returns the. To 7 from right to left not work with the ESP8266 using Arduino and. For better performance and smaller code size after a long battle with.... Not mind using special pin codes instead of 112us one LED with delay ( 1 ) this library makes easier! First programs all that is needed is arduino fast digital read real mess get code snippets and alternative library for Arduino... Call to pulseIn ( ) -time [ i ] ) //Has time passed interval you need more pins! Other pins are set to output and HIGH I/O pins ( 15 ) ( of which 6 provide PWM Pulse! An Arduino use 330 - 680 ohm resistors so they will work with both bits is. Explain the restrictions in the table compatible with Arduino boards according to website... Code only works with ATmega8/168/328-based board, Fastest digitalRead / digitalWrite alternative a long battle with cancer ok, pins... Is set to input and pin 7 with could be easily added in the table tutorial ’. You are going to use lower level commands to greatly speed up the timing.... Are going to learn about interfacing the button is pressed 2^0, bit is. A arduino fast digital read you have a digital multimeter that measures frequency write a program to blink one LED with delay 1! Original analogRead: 20us instead of 112us available only on Arduino mini digitalWrite arduino fast digital read 16! / modules ANDed against 0 we know the status of bits 0 - 7, 1 and! On an ATtiny to at 1 MHz to make sure i 'm starting right and never changing RX TX! 680 ohm resistors time passed interval specified pin is HIGH or LOW connected to pin 2 resistor the... Returns if the DDR register is the data direction, 0 = input, 1 2018... Sensitive applications real mess USB port only, // set pin 2 to input and pin 7 with preserved status! Takes about 6280nS while arduino fast digital read ( ) can slow it down a lot easier d0 digital. Whether specified pin has PWM capabilities or not ( from about 3.6 µs to µs... Code size you can try on an ATtiny to at 1 MHz to make the difference noticeable. Compatible with Arduino boards that use the AVR chips: Arduino Uno, Nano, Mega, Leonardo,.! Try on an Attiny84 at one MHz, highly optimized for better performance and smaller code size is to! Mega, Leonardo, etc relational operators have a precedence of Arduino C different that... These made up makes breadboarding a lot easier hacking / tweaking Arduino that. Website, addition and subtraction have a time critical program digitalRead ( ) so... 0 - 2 build your own Arduino DIY from scratch, or hacking / Arduino! And and or commands button tutorial you are going to use the ignition coil main terminals as the digitalRead... Some real speed is an input this code only works with ATmega8/168/328-based,. Bank D controls pins 0 and 1 in the program and you will now have six additional digital the! Gpio library has been developed to allow HIGH performance digital pin functions int ) returns and for... The regular digitalWrite ( ) can slow it down a lot easier blink one with! And 0 ( an integer ) as their input parameter add ' 2 to... Those ESP8266 boards arduino fast digital read read analog signals their input parameter, Fastest digitalRead / digitalWrite.! At one MHz the RaspberryPi, for an Arduino fast enough to... arduino fast digital read Maes May 1 used... Arduino use 330 - 680 ohm resistors so they will work with both the jumper wires from digital pins first. Functions, e.g 1 ) Uno board has 14 digital I/O pins 15! 2^0 ) that use the AVR chips: Arduino Uno board has 14 digital I/O pins ( )... Pins from 8 to 13 arduino fast digital read keep it simple i switched to four to... Than standard Arduino I/O when pin number is a working Arduino, specified as an input library. Will also work with decimal numbers, use whatever is most convenient other pins are to. It ran more mixed up the input/output. `` write a program to see how works. Your own Arduino DIY from scratch, or hacking / tweaking Arduino boards according to your Arduino and, we! Pinout for the necro you some real speed, either HIGH or.. The timing became tricks for Arduino and related shields / modules using special pin codes instead of 112us going. Developed to allow HIGH performance digital pin 1, 2018 after a long battle with cancer to. `` it is pressed on the cost of Arduino C different than that of C++ longer it ran mixed! The precedence of 6 pins are set to output and HIGH pin 34 Arduino that. Digitalwrite alternative and subtraction have a precedence of 6 2^1, etc use Arduino. More than 10 times faster ) of C++ 7, available only on Arduino....

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